Fish Pond Types for Fish Farming

by Opeoluwa Falodun


Looking for a guide on Fish Pond Types for Fish Farming. Read this article as an enthusiast or an academic to know more.

A fish pond is a reservoir or controlled body of water that has been stocked with fish, and is used for fish farming, recreational fishing, or aesthetic purposes. The most typical method of fish culture is this one. Ponds that were built artificially in this location, where aquatic creatures live, keep the water level up. The ponds may be topped off with water from a bore well, a bore canal, precipitation, or other sources.


The choice of soil is a crucial factor to take into account while building the fish pond. In India, the four main soil types for fish farming are alluvial, lateritic, and black soils. Because the occurrence and growth of higher plants and microorganisms are largely dependent on the chemical makeup of the soil environment, understanding soil reactivity is crucial.

It is not sufficient to only look at the topsoil to determine the condition of the soil. There must be enough samples collected from a variety of representative locations. The sampling depth must be one meter deeper than the pond’s depth. To prevent significant leakage, the soil must have a particular thickness and have adequate water retention capabilities. The pond substrate, dyke building material, and water are all stored in the pond soil, which serves a vital purpose.

Pond size for fish farming

Your management aims and goals will be strongly impacted by the size of your fish pond. 1 to 5 acre small ponds offer fantastic fishing chances. Larger ponds and lakes offer other purposes outside fishing, including irrigation, swimming, boating, and hunting. Additionally, they are less vulnerable to variations in water level. The area of land that drains into the fish pond will decide its size for surface runoff ponds and lakes. 10 to 20 acres of the drainage area are needed for every acre of pond water on the surface.

If sport fishing is the main objective, the size of the pond will determine how many fish to stock. Many individuals have trouble measuring the size of their ponds’ surfaces. Overstocking and management problems may result from overestimating the surface area. If the surface area of your pond varies significantly, you must supply it using the average annual low-water surface area.

Suitable pond fishes
  • Algae eater
  • Fathead minnow
  • Goldfish
  • Catfish
  • Sunfish
  • Golden Tench
  • Koi carps
  • Rosette
  • Shubunkin
  • Sturgeon
  • Golden orfes

Types of fish ponds

  1. Earthen or natural type

A natural or earthen pond may only be found in areas with clay soil, subsurface water, or a moving stream. It is situated in a marshy location with access to clean, fresh water. The pond is invariably of the dug-out variety and is typically 1.5 meters deep. The earthen pond’s water is 1.2 meters deep, and a dike is constructed around it using the dugout dirt to avoid flooding during the rainy season. Contour or trench ponds are examples of natural ponds.

  1. Concrete as a material for fish pond

Cement, blocks, and aggregate are combined in the right amounts while building concrete ponds for fish farming. Three major approaches may be taken to a concrete pond; a pool of stagnant concrete, concrete ponds with free-flowing water and recirculating water

Types of fish ponds according to the water source

Groundwater ponds.

(a) Ponds with spring water are refilled from a spring within the pond or relatively near it. While the water supply fluctuates throughout the year, the water’s quality is often consistent.

(b) Seepage into the fish pond supplies the water-table to seepage ponds. The water table’s level will influence the pond’s water level.

Rainfed ponds
Surface runoff and rainfall provide water for fish ponds that are fed by the rain. These ponds, which are tiny depressions in impermeable soil with a dike erected at the bottom side to hold more water, are not supplied with water during the dry season.

Now that you know Fish Pond Types for Fish Farming, do you need a business plan or feasibility study alongside?


Catfish Farming in Tanks

With a rapidly growing population and increasing demand for protein-rich food sources, aquaculture has become a vital component of Nigeria’s agricultural sector. Catfish farming, in particular, has gained significant traction due to its adaptability to various farming systems. This article delves into the world of catfish farming in tanks, a sustainable and efficient method that holds great potential for meeting Nigeria’s protein needs

The Advantages of Tank-Based Catfish Farming

  1. Space Efficiency: In densely populated areas or regions with limited access to natural water bodies, tank-based catfish farming offers a practical solution. It requires minimal land and can be set up even in urban environments.
  2. Water Quality Control: Tanks provide the advantage of precise control over water quality. This ensures that the fish are raised in a clean and controlled environment, reducing the risk of diseases and stress.
  3. Reduced Environmental Impact: Compared to open pond systems, tank-based farming minimizes the risk of environmental contamination. Proper waste management practices can be implemented, mitigating the impact on surrounding ecosystems.
  4. Year-Round Production: Tanks allow for year-round catfish production, independent of seasonal variations or weather conditions. This steady production can lead to a more reliable source of income for farmers.
  5. Optimized Feeding Practices: In tank systems, it’s easier to monitor feeding habits and adjust rations accordingly. This leads to better growth rates and reduces feed wastage, ultimately improving the efficiency of the farming operation.

Setting Up a Catfish Farm in Tanks

  1. Selecting Tanks: Choose sturdy, food-grade plastic tanks or concrete tanks that are durable and suitable for aquaculture. Ensure they have adequate capacity to accommodate the desired number of fish.
  2. Water Source and Quality: Ensure a reliable source of clean, preferably oxygenated water. Test and monitor water parameters regularly, and address any issues promptly.
  3. Aeration and Filtration: Install aeration systems to maintain optimal oxygen levels. Additionally, consider incorporating filtration systems to remove solid waste and maintain water clarity.
  4. Tank Preparation: Clean and disinfect the tanks before introducing fish. This helps eliminate potential pathogens and contaminants.
  5. Acquiring Fingerlings: Source healthy and disease-free catfish fingerlings from reputable hatcheries. Quarantine new fish before introducing them into the main tank population.
  6. Feeding and Nutrition: Provide a balanced diet of high-quality catfish feed. Supplement with natural foods like aquatic plants or small organisms for a well-rounded diet.
  7. Water Management: Monitor water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and ammonia levels. Conduct regular water changes and implement appropriate water treatment measures.
  8. Monitoring and Maintenance: Regularly inspect the tanks for signs of stress or disease. Clean and maintain equipment to ensure optimal functioning.


Catfish farming in tanks represents a viable and sustainable approach to aquaculture in Nigeria. By implementing best practices and utilizing modern technologies, farmers can achieve higher yields, better water quality control, and ultimately contribute to meeting the growing demand for protein in the country. As with any farming endeavor, continuous learning and adherence to industry standards are key to success in catfish farming in tanks. With dedication and proper management, this method holds immense promise for both small-scale and commercial catfish producers across Nigeria.

How To Download The Complete Catfish Farming Business Plan In Nigeria PDF and Doc

Above is a part of the catfish business plan in Nigerian. If you want the complete catfish farming business plan with 3 years of financial analysis, follow the procedures to download it.

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Fish Pond Types for Fish Farming. 

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